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Nasal and Oral Corticosteroids for Allergies

Overview of Corticosteroids for
Allergies

Highlights

  1. Corticosteroids are a form of steroids used to treat swelling and inflammation in allergies, as well as allergic asthma.
  2. Nasal corticosteroids are sprayed directly into the nasal passages to reduce inflammation.
  3. Oral corticosteroids are taken in pill or liquid form and help reduce inflammation all over the body.

Corticosteroids are a form of steroids used to treat swelling and inflammation
from allergies, as well as allergic asthma. They’re often referred to as
steroids, but they’re not the same types of products abused by some athletes.
Corticosteroids may be used for a range of allergies, and they may be taken for
a short-term or a long-term basis, depending on the severity of your condition.

These drugs are primarily used for ongoing illnesses. They are
especially useful for treating inflammation, a long-term underlying effect of many
conditions like allergies. Corticosteroids mimic the effects of cortisol, which
is a stress hormone. Your adrenal glands excrete it to help your body minimize
the effects of inflammation and other patterns related to stress.

Doctors typically prescribe this medication in either a nasal or oral
form for allergies. While inhaled and injected forms are available, they aren’t
typically used for allergies. Learn more about the differences between nasal
and oral corticosteroids, and how to determine which is best for your condition.

Nasal Corticosteroids

Nasal Spray

You have a greater chance of developing congestion if your nose is
inflamed from allergies. Nasal corticosteroids relieve congestion by decreasing
the inflammation in your nose. Unlike inhaled corticosteroids used for asthma,
nasal versions are sprayed directly into the nasal passages.

Nasal corticosteroids are commonly available in spray form. They’re also
available as aerosol liquids and powders.

Nasal corticosteroids provide relief from congestion. Unlike
over-the-counter nasal sprays, nasal corticosteroids aren’t addictive. You can
use them without your body becoming used to them. On the other hand, it can
take up to three weeks for you to start feeling the full benefits, according to
the Mayo Clinic.

Side Effects of Nasal Corticosteroids

The most common side effect of nasal corticosteroids is irritation of
your nose or throat. These medications might also cause dryness in your nose.

These drugs rarely cause major side effects. However, if you experience
any of the following symptoms, call your doctor right away:

  • nose bleeds or sores
  • vision changes
  • breathing difficulties
  • swelling of your face
  • dizziness
  • eye pain
  • headaches

Risks of Nasal Corticosteroids

One major risk of nasal corticosteroids is that they can sometimes make
asthma symptoms worse. You may want to consider using a different type of product
if you have allergic asthma. You should also check with your doctor if you have
a history of:

  • nose injuries
  • surgeries on your nose
  • nose sores
  • infections
  • heart attack
  • liver disease
  • type 2 diabetes
  • underactive thyroid, or hypothyroidism
  • glaucoma

Certain types of steroids are also not recommended for use in pregnant
women and women who are nursing.

Oral Corticosteroids

Oral Pill

Oral corticosteroids have the same primary purpose as their nasal counterparts.
They reduce inflammation. These steroids can reduce inflammation all over your
body rather than in one specific area. This is why they can be used for a range
of allergic reactions, including severe pollen allergies and skin allergies,
such as eczema.

Tablets are among the most common forms of these drugs, but they’re also
available as syrups. This is beneficial for pediatric and geriatric patients
who may not be able to swallow pills easily.

Due to their powerful nature, oral corticosteroids are generally used
for a short period. Long-term use of these drugs can increase your risk of side
effects.

Side Effects of Oral Corticosteroids

Some of the side effects of oral corticosteroids are similar to nasal
versions. However, medications taken by mouth tend to have a wider range of
potential adverse effects. These include:

  • anxiety
  • depression
  • vision changes
  • increased blood pressure
  • hallucinations
  • appetite changes
  • water retention
  • muscle weakness
  • joint pain
  • decreased immunity

Some of these side effects go away on their own. However, you should
tell your doctor about any reaction to oral corticosteroids to prevent further
complications.

Risks of Oral Corticosteroids

Oral corticosteroids are more effective overall than their nasal
versions because they focus on more than one area of your body. The risk of
side effects is higher in oral corticosteroids, however. This is because
they’re in a higher concentration. The risk is even higher if you take a high
dose over a long time period.

Your doctor will likely start you off with the lowest dose possible to
reduce your risks. You might receive a larger dose if more medication is necessary.
Never take more than the recommended dose. This can lead to potentially
life-threatening consequences.

Outlook

Corticosteroids are among many of the types of medications available in
the treatment of allergies. Inhaled corticosteroids may be used for asthma.
However, it isn’t used to treat all cases of allergic asthma. Talk to your
doctor about which option might be best for you.

Although they’re used for chronic diseases like allergies, corticosteroids
can become dangerous when used for a long time. This is why your doctor will
closely monitor your condition and your symptoms. They’ll lower the dose when needed.

Corticosteroids cause allergic reactions in some people. While it’s
rare, an allergic reaction to corticosteroids can be life-threatening. Call 911
right away if you experience breathing difficulties, swelling, and extreme feelings
of fatigue.

In some cases, it’s not a matter of whether you should choose nasal or
oral corticosteroids. You may need to decide whether corticosteroids are a good
option for you overall. Some people don’t respond well to any form of steroids,
making these types of medications useless for allergy symptoms. Your doctor
might order a blood test to see whether or not this is the case for you.
Discuss any past reactions to steroid medications with your doctor. Tell them
about any family history of issues from taking this medication. This can help
avoid the potential for dangerous side effects.

You Asked, We Answered

  • Can nasal corticosteroids be used to treat children with allergies?- Anonymous
  • Yes, but they’re not for infants. There is both pediatric and adolescent
    dosing for nasal corticosteroids. These sprays are now available over the counter.
    Make sure to read the dosing instructions carefully or consult with your
    pharmacist before using. 

    – Mark Laflamme, M.D.

Posted by: Dr.Health

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